Effect of surface astigmatism and GRIN on lens astigmatism, published in IOVS
We estimated the contribution of the gradient refractive index (GRIN) and lens surfaces to lens astigmatism and lens astigmatic angle as a function of age in human donor lenses. The axis of lens astigmatism is close to the astigmatic axis of the anterior lens surface. Age-related changes in lens astigmatism appear to be related to changes in the anterior lens astigmatism. The influence of the GRIN on lens astigmatism and the astigmatic axis is minor.
Full publication: Astigmatism of the Ex Vivo Human Lens Surface and Gradient Refractive Index Age Dependent Contributions, IOVS – August 2015 – Vol. 56 – No. 9 – 5070 . J. Birkenfeld , A. de Castro, S. Marcos